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Hardware, structure, operating of computer with Mr.Toyny Part 4

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CPU (Central Processing Unit)


A Central Processing Unit or sometimes simply CPU and processor, is the main section in computer that processes data contained in computer programs. In comparison, CPU is human's brain. A CPU includes integrated circuits on single-chip microprocessors

The duty of CPU have thus below

    • To interpret instructions in program
    • To process data contained in computer programs
    • To interface with memory unit
    • To provide interactive through input/output units/LI>


    The Structure of CPU operation

    CPU operation

    There are 3 sections, including,

      1. Execution Unit (EU)
      2. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
      3. Bus Interface Unit
    1. Execution Unit an execution unit is a part of a CPU that performs the operations and calculations called for by the program
    2. Arithmetic Logic Unit) it is a part of the execution unit, a core component of all CPUs. ALUs are capable of calculating the results of a wide variety of basic arithmetical computations.
    3. Bus Interface Unitit is the part of the processor that interfaces with the rest of the PC

    How to process ?

    CPU will perform the operations into the execution unit, next, it decodes and interprets instruction to perform calculations, and then send to Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) that is capable of calculating the results of a wide variety of basic arithmetical computations. When it is finished, ALU will be connected to a set of inputs and a set of outputs through Bus Interface that is the part of the processor that interfaces with the rest of the PC

    The fundamental operation of CPU will operate in memory unit all the times. Moreover, CPU also executes instructions to read data from input devices and then writes back to output devices

    The development of CPU

    The table below shows the development of the series of CPUs


    Internal Bus


    Internal Bus

    Intel 8086

    16 Bit

    Intel 80386 SX

    32 Bit

    Intel 8088

    16 Bit

    Intel 80486 (80486DX)

    32 Bit

    Intel 80286

    16 Bit

    Intel 80486SX

    32 Bit

    Intel 80386 (80386DX)

    32 Bit

    Intel Pentium

    64 Bit


    Note..* The writer gives the example of Intel because it is the first developer.*

    What you know from CPU

    CPU (CPU Frequency) speed or frequency in processing for a second, for CPU has the unit is MHz, for example, 600 MHz shows CPU has ability of processing 600 million per a second.

    Next, we're going to talk about System Bus or Front Side Bus (FSB) is a term for the physical bi-directional data bus that carries all electronic signal information between the central processing unit (CPU) and other devices within the system.

    CPU Frequency = System Bus (FSB) X Frequency Ration

    CPU core voltageis the power supply voltage supplied to the CPU. It is section we know about the amount of power a CPU uses, and thus the amount of heat it dissipates.

    Cache MemoryMemory is a type of memory unit, SRAM (Static RAM). Almost, we have been known a memory unit, called "DRAM (Dynamic RAM)" Cache Memory is divided into 2 types, including,

    Cache Memory has 2 type then

    L-1 Cache (Level-1 Cache Call L-1 Cache and Level -2 Cache call L-2 Cache) and it should be has L-3 Cache, L-4 Cache .next )

    L-1 Cacheis installed in CPU, can be called Cache-On-die.

    L-2 Cache Cache is located on mainboard. Apparently, it is a long IC that has just two rows of legs in a straight line like a comb. Some piece is square chip in which the pins are arranged in concentric squares. It resides on the side nearly RAM socket.

          Next, for Intel Pentium MMX, L-2 Cache reside on CPU, for Intel Pentium II, slot has L-2 Cache. For Intel Pentium II slot, there is L-2 Cache places on electronic boards called printed circuit boards. Nowadays, L-2 Cache is embedded in CPU as well as L-1 Cache, such as CPU Pentium III of Intel, Thunderbird of AMD and many mores

    The type of CPU

    CPU is divided into 2 types.

      1. Socket
      2. Slot


    This CPU sockets and processors in use today are built in a ceramic slab, a square array of metal pins. The pins can then be inserted into the holes in a printed circuit board and soldered in place.

    CPU of Intel has several series, such as 8086, 8088, 80286, 80386, 80486, Pentium, Pentium MMX, Pentium Pro, Pentium Celeron , Pentium II, Pentium III

    CPU of AMD has several series, such as 286,386SXL, 386DXL, 486DX, K5, K6, K6-II, K6-III, Duron, and Thunder Bird

    CPU of Cyliz has 486SLC , 486DLC ,5X86,6X86(MI),6X86MX, MII

    This CPU sockets has more production as computer marketing. such as low cost and common using to many model of mainboard brand


    Slot-CPU has are rectangle chip with the black plastic. There is CPU on the center. For its side, is resided others devices. This type of CPU has high capital money, so it can't be produced next.

    CPU of Intel includes some of Pentium Celeron, Pentium II, and Pentium III.

    CPU of AMD includes Athlon (K7)

    There are 2 type of connector

    There are many different types of CPU socket and slot, if CPU is installed into Main board, main board will connect into connector linking the motherboard to the CPU.

      1. Socket
      2. Slot

    In the past to present , CPU socket type has develop to many type that have detail as thus below

    Socket 3 used for Intel 80486DX2 , 80486DX4

    Socket 4, for Intel Pentium 60 - 66 MHz

    Socket 5, for Intel Pentium, AMD K5, K6, K6-II, Cyrix 6X86(MI)

    Socket 7, for Intel Pentium, Pentium MMX, AMD K5, K6, K6-II, K6-III Cyrix 6X86(MI), 6X86MX, M II

    Socket 370, for some Intel Pentium Celeron and Pentium III (Coppermine)

    Socket A, for AMD Duron, Thunder bird

    Socket slot base

    For slot connector, including,

    Slot 1used for some Intel Celeron and some Intel Pentium II, III

    Slot Afor AMD Athlon

    Ok, this part is end here, see you next part. Good bye!!

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